First Amendment Advocate, Special Issue January 2006
The Newsletter of the Oklahoma Chapter of Americans United
The Original Intent of the First Amendment
The Origin of the "Wall" Metaphor for Church/State Separation
“The church of the Jews under the Old Testament in the type and the church of the Christians under the New Testament in the antitype were both separate from the world; and when they have opened a gap in the hedge or wall of separation between the garden of the church and the wilderness of the world, God hath ever broke down the wall itself, removed the candlestick, and made his garden a wilderness.”
— Roger Williams
As quoted in Perry Miller, Roger Williams: His Contribution to the American Tradition. Atheneum, 1962, p. 98.
Roger Williams and Religious Liberty for Persons of All Faiths
Roger Williams’s definition of “conscience” is in a letter he wrote about the persecution of three Baptists in Boston. He said,
Williams, a strict Separatist Protestant, insisted that no one was to violate the “consciences of the Jews, nor the consciences of the Turks, or Papists, or pagans themselves.”
As quoted in William Lee Miller, The First Liberty: America’s Foundation in Religious Freedom. Expanded and Updated. Georgetown University Press, 2003, pp. 170-71.
On the influence of Roger Williams, William Lee Miller writes,
"Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof”
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